Steel Metals & Minerals International October 2010 Issue
Review of Global Steel Technology and Market
New infrastructural projects and innovations raise demand for world steel
The Asian countries have their individual power in the production of steel all over
the world. India as one of the fastest growing economies of the world has been considered
the potential steel center worldwide. Over the years, the World Steel Industry is
growing more rapidly.
GLOBAL STEEL SCENARIO
Review of Global Steel Technology and Market
According to the latest reports of World Steel Association, the month of July 2010
will manufacture a vast amount of rudimentary steel. At Brussels, crude production
of steel for the world (for 66 countries) was of 115 million metric tonnes (mmt)
in July. (As of the datas of the World Steel Association-world steel). This shows
that the current stats are higher than July 2009 by the percentage of 9.6 percent.
A Study on Performance Improvement in Low Shaft Blast Furnace
With the changed scenario of steel technology, sponge Iron and low shaft blast furnace
occupies important position in relation to Iron Ore resource available in our country.
High-grade sized Iron Ore are processed in rotary kiln for Sponge Iron production.
Fines (-10 mm) and Sinter Ore processed in Low Shaft Blast Furnace. In many cases,
both processes complement each other in relation to crushed product obtained from
mine and thus ensure optimum utilization of mined product, Sponge and Hot Metal
obtained from Low or Medium Shaft Blast Furnace can be processed for steel production.
Strategic positioning for competitive advantage - A must for Indian Steel Industry
to be globally competitive
Even though, India ranked 5th in the world in terms of crude steel production during
the years 2007- 2009, but from global competitiveness point of view, Indian Steel
Industry is far behind. Indian Steel Industry has been mainly concentrating on improving
the Operational Effectiveness of its Steel plants, such as increasing the productivity
in terms of hot metal production per cubic metre volume of Blast Furnace per day,
reducing coke consumption in term of tonnes of coke consumed per tonne of hot metal
produced, reducing energy consumed per tonne of finished steel produced, etc. However,
Indian Steel Industry has done little towards strategies to compete globally. Indian
steel plants should build corecompetencies and overcome resource constraints through
creative and unending pursuit of better resources leverage. Indian steel plants
should craft strategic architecture to not only compete globally but also innovatively
think to emerge as global leaders of steel industry.
The Value of Seaborne Iron Ore to the Global Steel Industry
The implications of these issues involve attention to the following: need to maximize
mill productivity and the need to reduce the total fuel requirements. The response
to which has involved changing the burden requirements to target high iron bearing,
low gangue content raw materials, and the steel industry all over the world becoming
increasingly reliant on high quality traded iron ore. In fact, the best practice
in Asia leads the way and East Asian steelmakers have become a global benchmark
in terms of productivity and fuel rates as well as using a high proportion of seaborne
Prospect of commercial production of ferro-nickel production in India
During mining of chromite ores in India, a large quantity of overburden material
to the extent of about 5 million tonnes per year is being generated containing around
0.2-0.9% Ni, depending upon the location and depth of mining1-4. This material presently
does not find any application for the extraction of nickel due to lack of a suitable
technology. It is also found to be unsuitable for ferro-nickel making because of
very high iron to nickel ratio.
An Outlook of Aluminium Lithium Alloy in India
With the expansion of Aluminium Industries in Orissa, the production of Aluminium
Silicon alloy (Selumin) and Aluminium Lithium Alloy are extremely important for
Engineering and Aerospace Industry. In the Annual Journal of Institution of Engineers
1984 and 1989, I have presented the future prospect of Aluminium Silicon alloy.
In this article, I like to provide some thought about the prospect of Aluminium
Strategy for development of Mineral Base Industry
The mineral resources of Orissa form a very important constituent of India’s mineral
wealth that include a wide variety of ores and minerals such as, iron ore, chromite,
manganese ore, bauxite, non-coking coal, lime stone, dolomite, nickel ore, vanadium
ore, copper ore, lead ore, fireclay, china clay, graphite, quartz and quartizite,
mineral sands like ilmenite, sillimanite, zircon and tine ore. The high grade minerals
are essential for development of various mineral based industries such as iron and
steel, ferro alloys, coal based fertilizers, thermal power station, non-ferrous
industries. Lean and off grade ores mostly cater to the needs of raw materials in
cement, refractories, ceramics, chemical and glass industries. Thus, the scope for
value addition in mineral based industries in the State is immense.
Beach Sand Mineral Industry in Orissa - An Overview
Orissa is endowed with valuable resources of beach-sand minerals, considered to
be one of the prominent beach-sand mineral deposits of the world. The eastern coastal
belt of about 150 km stretching from Mahanadi basin till Andhra Pradesh border,
has been investigated by Atomic Mineral Division of Government of India and number
of potential areas have been identified in the belt containing heavy minerals, ranging
in grade from 5% to 30%. The southern block of the coastal belt near Chhatrapur
is more promising and at present under exploitation by India Rare Earth Ltd., for
the OSCOM Plant. The beach-sand minerals constitute a group of heavy minerals, such
as Ilmenite, Ratile, Zincon, Monazite, Garnet and Sillimanite.
Prospects of Titanium Mineral Industry in India
Our country has large reserves of strategic and economically important heavy minerals
such as llmenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, monazite, garnet, sillimanite. These
deposits are mostly located in the costal stretches of peninsular India and with
exception of few in land placer deposits like terisand deposits of Tamilnadu & Ranchi
- Purulia riverine placer of Bihar & West Bengal, llmenite is the largest constituent
of Indian beach sand deposits, followed by sillimanite and garnet.
Minerals for aluminium production
Known as the relative of inorganic compounds, aluminium oxide (chemical formula
=Al2O3) is an amphoteric oxide which is usually referred as alumina, is widely spread,
both naturally and industry-wise. It is mostly used in the manufacture of aluminium
metal. It is also used as an abrasive as it is hard and as a refractory material
because of its high melting point.
The knowledge based foundation of steelmaking & application in steel melt shop
Our knowledge and understanding of the physical, chemical and thermal interactions
among steel, slag, gas and refractory phases during processing & transfer operations
have increased remarkably over the years. This has helped create a solid process
engineering knowledge base, the wide spread application of which on shop floor has
brought in major technological changes to transform steelmaking practice. As a result,
steelmakers are now empowered to design, automate and control refining and transfer
operations precisely to ensure increased productivity, better product quality, and
lower specific energy consumption and so on. In this work, the knowledge based foundation
of steelmaking and its relevance to process engineering are discussed. In such context,
the role of thermodynamics, transpor t phenomena (fluid flow, heat and mass transfer),
reaction kinetics, modeling and measurements are highlighted with the aid of few
examples and illustrations. The rigor with which process engineering fundamentals
is taught in the undergraduate metallurgical engineering curriculum is also examined
INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY
Growth of Indian Steel Industry
Since India’s Independence the nation’s steel industry has had an eventful journey
dri ven by socioeconomic changes and policy shifts. In 1947, Indian steel industry
comprised of only three major steel plants – Tata Iron and Steel Company (Tata Steel),
Indian Iron and Steel Company and Visveswaraya Iron and Steel Company; there were
a few small electric arc furnace based units. Total installed production capacity
was around 1 million tonne. From this fledgling production level, India has grown
impressively to become world’s 5th largest crude steel producing nation. The chart
shows different phases of growth in the Indian steel industry.
Raw Material for Non-Ferrous Metals
Bauxite acts as the main ore for producing pure aluminum. It is made up of 45-60%
aluminum oxide with many impurities like sand, iron, and other metals. There are
some hard rock bauxite deposits and some are made up of soft dirt, which can be
dug out from open-pit mines. About 2 kg of bauxite produces 0.5 kg of aluminium.
The Indian Ferro Alloys Industry: Opportunities & Challenges
The Indian Ferro Alloys Industry in the organized Sector came into production in
mid sixties, at the behest of the Planning Commission, which thought it proper that
instead of raw materials abundantly available in the country being exported, the
country could build up the infrastructure where it could use the natural resources
of Ores like Manganese Ore, Chrome Ore, Titanium Ore and produce value added products
like Ferro Alloys. In addition to meeting the demand for ferro alloys from the growing
steel industry, the ferro alloys industry would also helps generate employment opportunities
for a large part of the population.
We stand as the largest manufacturer of manganese alloys in the country
Iron & Steel Review: You are taking charge from the year 2004. What changes would
you like to bring to expand company's business from where it stands today?
Chetan Aggarwala: Since 2004, we have a good growth rate in the business
of manganese alloys and hope to continue in the same path in the times to come.
INDIAN REFRACTORY INDUSTRY some thoughts on constraints
To begin with, the domestic economic outlook does sound positive and we are expected
to outperform last year’s GDP numbers provided truant monsoon doesn’t play spoilsport.
In this year, we may expect good growth in steel, cement, automobile and IT sector.
Besides, banking and infrastructure would continue to be among the performers. On
an average, the corporate earnings show some upward revision as per the first quarter
results. Overall, there hasn’t been too much topline growth (barring a few companies/sectors)
and margins have improved through operational efficiencies and adjustment in input
costs. We have also not seen huge capex in the past two years to provide top-line
growth to the core sector companies.
Raw Materials for Refractories
Raw materials are the backbone of any manufacturing industry. The major criteria
of salability of a product are its quality and price. Both these characteristics
are invariably governed by the raw materials used for the manufacturing of the products.
Similarly, in case of refractories, raw materials play a very vital role in formulating
its performance in the market.